Evaluation of Soil Quality in Parts of Israel and Nigeria

Main Article Content

T. J. K. Ideriah


The levels of physiochemical parameters and some heavy metals in top soil and sediment from parts of Israel and Nigeria were determined using standard methods and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer by GBC Avanta Version 2.02. The results showed ranges of mean levels of pH 5.78±0.4 – 8.08±0.001 in Israel and 5.3±0.1 – 6.70±0.2 in Nigeria; Organic matter 0.04±0.09% - 13.49±0.03% in Israel and 1.10±0.7% – 2.69±0.9% in Nigeria; Total Nitrogen 0.03±0.01% - 0.96±0.1% in Israel and 0.05±0.7% - 0.14±0.2% in Nigeria; Available Phosphorus 1.40±0.06 ppm – 70.18±0.06 ppm in Israel and 14±0.1 ppm – 64.6±0.2 ppm in Nigeria; Potassium 0.64±0.6 meq/100 g – 5.74±0.02 meq/100 g in Israel and 0.07±0.05 meq/100 g – 0.08±0.04 meq/100 g in Nigeria. The highest C/N ratios were 65.25 and 53.67 in Israel and 13.89 and 12.80 in Nigeria which implies high decomposition and mineralization in Nigeria. The levels of all the heavy metals were below their standard limits. The mean levels of physicochemical parameters of soils from Israel and Nigeria showed significant difference (p<0.05). The soil metal index of the heavy metals ranged from 0.013 – 0.070 in Israel and 0.004 – 0.058 in Nigeria. Cadmium was found to be the heavy metal with highest enrichment factor value of 87.871 in Israel and 5853.66 in Nigeria. The soils from Israel were found to be alkaline while those from Nigeria were acidic, nutrient deficient and need application of land amendment materials.

Soil quality, physicochemical, parameters, heavy metals, Israel, Nigeria.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ideriah, T. J. K. (2019). Evaluation of Soil Quality in Parts of Israel and Nigeria. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, 25(5), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i530194
Original Research Article


Karlen DL, Mausbach MJ, Doran RG, Cline RF, Harris, Schuman GE. Soil quality: A concept, definition, and framework for evaluation (A Quest Editoral). Soil Science Society of American J. 1992;61:4-10.

Brady NC, Weil RR. The nature and properties of soils. Fifteen Edition. Prentice Hall Inc., New Jersey. 1996;18.

Reuter R. Sewage sludge as an organic amendment for reclaiming surface mine wastes. Soil Science Society of Amrica Journal. 2001;65:1736-1744.

Isirimah NO, Dickson AA, Igwe C. Introductory soil chemistry and biology for agriculture and biotechnology. Osia Intl. Publishers Ltd, Port Harcourt; 2003.

Donahue RL, Miller RW, Shickluna JC. Soils. An introduction to soils and plant growth (fifty Edition). New Delhi, Prentice-Hall of India. 1990;667.

Lines – Kelly R. Soil sense. National Landcare Programme, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries; 2004.

Soil Science Society of America. Glossary of Soil Science Terms; 2007.

Hue NV, Ikawa H. Acid soils in Hawaii: Problems and management. Department of Agronomy and Soil Science, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawii, Manoa; 2006.

Manceau A, Boisset M, Sarret G, Hazeman J, Mench M, Cambier P, Prost R. Direct determination of lead speciation in contaminated soils by EXAFS spectroscopy. Environ Sci. Technol. 1996;30:1540–1552.

Alloway BJ, Arye DC. Chemical principles of environmental pollution. Blackie London. 1994;101-200.

Wyatt CJ, Fimbres C, Romo L, Mendez RO, Grijalva M. Incidence of heavy metal contamination in water supplies in Northern Mexico. Environmental Research. 1998;114-9.

Israel Science and Technology Directory; 1999.

Agriculture in Israel. Retrieved; 2008.

Dan J, Gerson R, Kogumdjisky H, Yaalon DH. Arid soils of Israel. Agricultural Research Organization, Special Publication 190; 1981.

Alabo EH, Fitzhen WH, Ogarea FA. Geotechnical properties of a tropical red soil from parts of Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria. Nig. Jour. Min. Geol. 1984;20:1-6.

Loganathan P. Laboratory manual of soil and plant analysis. University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. 1984;5-50.

Olsen SR, Sommers LE Analysis of soil available phosphorus. Method of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties, 2nd Edn. Agron. Mongr. 9, ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI, USA; 1982.

Bremner JM. Analysis of total nitrogen. Method of Soil Analysis Part 3. Chemical Methods. SSSA Book Series No. 5 SSSA and ASA, MADISON, WI, USA; 1996.

Mulvaney RL. Mineral nitrogen determination. Method of Soil Analysis Part 3. Chemical Methods. SSSA Book Series No. 5 USA New Dehli; 1993.

Kundsen N, Patterson GA, Pratt PF. Analysis of Na and K methods of soil analysis. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Sec. Edn. Agron. Monogr. 9, ASA SSSA, Madison, WI, USA; 1982.

APHA. Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water. 19th Edn. New York, USA; 1995.

Feng H, Han X, Zhang W, Yu L. A preliminary study of heavy metal contamination in Yangtze River Intertidal Zone due to Urbanization. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 2004;49:910-915.

Sinex S, Helz G. Regional geochemistry of trace elements in Chesapeak Bay ediments. Environmental Geology. 1981;3: 315-323.

Tippie V. An environmental characteriza-tion of Chesa-Peak Bay and a frame work for action. In: Kennedy, V. Ed. The Estuary as a Filter, Academic Press, New York. 1984;467-487.

Mmolawa K, Likuku A, Gaboutloeloe G. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in soils along Roadside Areas in Botswana. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2011;5:186-196.

Isirimah NO. An inventory of some chemical properties of selected surface soils of River State of Nigeria. In Proceeding of 15th Annual Conference of Soil Science Association of Nigeria. Kaduna. 1987;217-233.

Odu CTIL, Nwoboshi OF, Esuruoso, Ogunwale OJA. Industry operation areas. Proceeding of the International Seminar on the Petroleum and the Nigerian Environment. Port Harcourt. 1985;117-123.

Brady NC, Weil RR. The nature and properties of soils (Eleventh Edition). Prentice Hall Inc., New Jersey, USA. 1994;740.

Itanna F. Comparative study on soil pollution with toxic substances on farmlands close to old and new industrial sites in Ethiopia. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 1998;12(2):105-112.

Brady NC. The nature and properties of soils. 8th Edition. Macmillan Publishing CO., INC., New York. USA; 1974.

Metson AJ. Methods of soil analysis for soil survey samples. New Zealand Department of Soil and Industrial Research. Soil Bureau Bulletin 12, Government Printer, Wellington, New Zealand; 1961.

Landon JR. Booker tropical soil manual. A handbook for soil survey agricultural land evolution in the tropics and sub-tropics. Longman Science and Technical. 1991;474.

Smith RT, Atkinson K. Techniques in pedology. A handbook for environmental and resource studies. 1st Edition, Elek Science, London; 1975.

Stocking M. Soil erosion and land degradation. In: O’Riordan T, (Ed) Environ-mental Science for Environmental Manage-ment. Longman, England. 1997;224.

Stegman RS, Heevenklage J. Biological treatment of oil contaminated soils. In Bioreactor in R. E. Olfen Buttel (Eds), on site Bioremediation Process Xerenobiotic and Hydrocarbon Treatment. 1991;188-199.

Baker KH, Herson DS. Bioremediation. McGraw – Hill Publishing Company, New York; 1994.

Enwezor WO, Udo EJ, Usoroh NJ, Ayotade KA, Adepetu JA, Chude VO, Udegbe CIU. Fertilizer use and management practices for crops in Nigeria; 1988.

Ilaco BV. Agricultural compendium for rural development in the tropics and sub-tropics. Elsevier Amsterdam. 1985;738.34.

Jones MI, Wild A. Soils of West African Savanna. The maintenance and improve-ment of their fertility. Commonwealth Bureau of the Soils Technical Communication of the Harpenden. No. 55, UK Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau (CAB), Farnham Royal, 246; 1975.

Udechukwu ARH. The potassium status of acid sands of Eastern Nigeria. M. Phil. Thesis, University of Nigeria, Nigeria, Nsukka; 1972.

Ideriah TJK, Omuaru VOT, Adiukwu PU. Heavy metal contamination of soils around municipal solid wastes dump in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Global Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2005;4(1):1-4.

Ideriah TJ, Ideriah BJ. Effects of crude oil spillage on physico-chemical and heavy metal concentrations in soils from Ablagada, Nigeria. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2006;12(4):539-543.

Torbert JL, Tuladhar AR, Burger JA, Bell JC. Minesoil property effects on the height of ten-year-old white pine. Journal of Environmental Quality. 1988;17:189-191.

Pam E, Akiti T, Osac S, Ganyaglo S, Gibrilla A. Multivariate cluster analysis of some major and trace elements distribution in an unsaturated zone profile, Densu River Basin, Ghana. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2011;5:155-167.

Li X, Liu L, Wang Y, Luo G, Chen X, Yang X, Hall M, Guo R, Wang H, Cui J, He X. Heavy metal contamination of urban soil in an Old Industrial City (Shenyang) in Northeast China. Geoderma. 2013;192:50-58.

Manata D, Angelone M, Bellanca A, Neri R, Sprovieri M. Heavy metals in urban soils: A case study from the City of Palermo (Sicily). Science of the Total Environment. 2002;300:229-243.

Emad MH, Abdelaal Kh. AA. Impact of Nitrogen fertilization levels on morpho-physiological characters and yield quality of some maize hybrids (Zea mays L.). Egyption J. Agron. 2015;37(1):35-48.

Thornton I. Metal contamination of soils in urban areas. In: Bullock, P. and Gregory, P. J., Eds., Soils in the Urban Environment. Blackwell, Oxford. 1991;47-75.