Distribution of msp1, msp2 and eba175 Allelic Family According to Hemoglobin Genotype and G6PD Type from Children with Uncomplicated Malaria in Banfora Heath District (Burkina Faso)

Main Article Content

Salif Sombié
Samuel Sindié Sermé
Aïssatou Diawara
Mame Massar Dieng
Amidou Diarra
Emilie S. Badoum
Sam Aboubacar Coulibaly
Noelie Henry/Béré
Wael Said Abdrabou
Aissata Barry
Désiré Kargougou
Alfred Sababeni Traoré
Alfred B. Tiono
Sodiomon Bienvenu Sirima
Youssef Idaghdour
Issiaka Soulama

Abstract

Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the Plasmodium falciparum genetic diversity according to the host hemoglobin and G6PD genetic variants during the course of malaria in infected children aged from 2 to 10 years and living in endemic area in Burkina Faso.

Study Design: The study was designed as a longitudinal follow up conducted between May 2015 and February 2016 in Banfora health district, Burkina Faso.

Methodology: We included 136 subjects (73 males and 63 females; age range from 2-10 years). Blood thick and thin film was done by capillary blood. Venous blood was collected for DNA extraction. Malaria diagnosis was done by microscopy. Human and parasite DNA were extracted based on Qiagen kit procedure. Then, hemoglobin and G6PD were genotyped by RLFP-PCR while the msp1, msp2 and eba175 genes were typed by a nested PCR. All PCR products were analyzed by electrophoresis on a 1.5-2% agarose gel and alleles categorized according to the molecular weight.

Results: The prevalence of hemoglobin type was 19.11% for abnormal hemoglobin and 80.9% for normal hemoglobin carriage. The prevalence of G6PD type was 91.18% for normal and 8.82% for G6PD deficiency carriage, respectively. The prevalence of msp1 allelic families was 81.60%, 80.80% and 67.20% for k1, ro33 and mad20 respectively while for msp2 gene, fc27 and 3D7 allelic family the prevalence was 70.53% and 69.64% respectively. The eba175 allelic families’ distribution showed 77.31% and 40.21% for fcr3 and Camp respectively. There was no difference in multiplicity of infection (MOI) according to hemoglobin genotypes and G6PD types. We found that k1 was the predominant allelic family of msp1 in normal hemoglobin genotype (AA) and normal G6PD type. The mixed infection of eba175 was statistically higher in abnormal hemoglobin (p=0.04). There was no statistical difference between fcr3 and camp prevalence excepted in G6PD deficient type. The polymorphism results showed that the prevalence of 450 bp in fc27 was statistically significantly higher in normal hemoglobin variant carriers (AA) than abnormal hemoglobin carriers (p=2.10 -4)). However, the prevalence of 350 bp in fc27 was statistically higher in normal G6PD than deficient G6PD carriers (p=0.034).

Conclusion: Our result showed that the distribution of msp1 and eba75 polymorphism could be influenced by hemoglobin and G6PD variants. These results suggest that hemoglobin and G6PD could influence P. falciparum genetic diversity.

Keywords:
Plasmodium falciparum, hemoglobin, G6PD, msp1, msp2, eba175, Burkina Faso.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sombié, S., Sindié Sermé, S., Diawara, A., Massar Dieng, M., Diarra, A., S. Badoum, E., Aboubacar Coulibaly, S., Henry/Béré, N., Said Abdrabou, W., Barry, A., Kargougou, D., Sababeni Traoré, A., B. Tiono, A., Bienvenu Sirima, S., Idaghdour, Y., & Soulama, I. (2020). Distribution of msp1, msp2 and eba175 Allelic Family According to Hemoglobin Genotype and G6PD Type from Children with Uncomplicated Malaria in Banfora Heath District (Burkina Faso). Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, 26(1), 36-47. https://doi.org/10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i130212
Section
Original Research Article

References

Who. World malaria report. Colombia; 2019.

Labgeo TC, Castillo-Salgado C, Baquero OS, Ribeiro H. Environmental and socioeconomic analysis of malaria transmission in the Brazilian Amazon, 2010-2015. Rev Saude Publica. 2019;53: 1-10.

Gueye NSG, Ntoumi F, Vouvoungui C, Kobawila SC, Nkombo M, Mouanga Am, et al. Plasmodium falciparum merozoite protein-1 genetic diversity and multiplicity of infection in isolates from congolese children consulting in a pediatric hospital in brazzaville. Acta trop]. 2019;183:78-83.

Bougouma EC, Tiono AB, Ouédraogo A, Soulama I, Diarra A, Yaro J, et al. Haemoglobin variants and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children under five years of age living in a high and seasonal malaria transmission area of Burkina Faso. 2012;1-10.

Ouattara A. Karim. Dehydrogenase (g 6 pd) deficiency is associated with asymptomatic malaria in a rural community in Burkina Faso g lucose-6-phosphate. 2014;4(8):655-8.

Mendis KN, Carter R. Clinical disease and pathogenesis in malaria. Parasitol today [internet]. 1995;11(5):pti1-16.
[Cité 13 oct 2019].

Gupta S, Hill AVS, Kwiatkowski D, Greenwood AM, Greenwood BM, Day KP. Parasite virulence and disease patterns in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1994;91(9):3715-9.

Soulama I, Nébié I, Ouédraogo A, Gansane A, Diarra A, Tiono AB, et al. Plasmodium falciparum genotypes diversity in symptomatic malaria of children living in an urban and a rural setting in Burkina Faso. Malar J. 2009;8(1):1-8.

Nana D, Roman R, Annie R, Ngane N, Singh V. Genetic polymorphisms of the merozoite surface protein-2 block-3 in Plasmodium falciparum field isolates in cameroonian asymptomatic children: Relation to Multiplicity of Infection; 2017.

Engelbrecht F, Felger I, genton B, Alpers M, Beck HP. Plasmodium falciparum: Malaria morbidity is associated with specific merozoite surface antigen 2 genotypes. Exp Parasitol [internet]. 1995; 81(1):90-6.
[Cité 13 oct 2019]

Ariey F, Hommel D, Le Scanf C, Duchemin JB, Peneau C, Hulin A, et al. Association of severe malaria with a specific Plasmodium falciparum genotype in French Guiana. J Infect Dis. 2001; 184(2):237-41.

Chandy C. John MDA, Paul Bangirana MSB, Justus Byarugaba, Mmedc ROO, Mmedc Richard IDRO, Mmedc Anne M. Jurek Phda, Baolin WU, Phdd MJB, Phd MPH. Nih public access. Pediatrics. 2008; 23(1):1-7.

Mahdi Abdel Hamid M, Elamin AF, Albsheer MMA, Abdalla AAA, Mahgoub NS, Mustafa SO, et al. Multiplicity of infection and genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from patients with uncomplicated and severe malaria in gezira state, sudan. Parasites and Vectors [internet]. 2016;9(1):1-8.

Mwingira F, Nkwengulila G, Schoepflin S, Sumari D, Beck H, Snounou G, et al. Allele frequency and diversity in sub-saharan africa. Malar J [internet]. 2011; 10(1):79.

Takala Sl, Coulibaly D, Thera MA, Dicko A, Smith Dl, Guindo Ab, et al. Dynamics of polymorphism in a malaria vaccine antigen at a vaccine-testing site in mali. Plos Med. 2007;4(3):523-34.

Mohammed H, Mindaye T, Belayneh M, Kassa M, Assefa A, Tadesse M, et al. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum isolates based on msp-1 and msp-2 genes from kolla-shele area, arbaminch zuria district, Southwest Ethiopia. Malar J. 2015;14(1):1-7.

Paing Mm, Salinas Nd, Adams Y, Oksman A, Jensen ATR, Goldberg De, et al. Shed eba-175 mediates red blood cell clustering that enhances malaria parasite growth and enables immune evasion. Elife. 2018;7:1-18.

Ferreira MU, Hartl DL. Plasmodium falciparum: Worldwide sequence diversity and evolution of the malaria vaccine candidate merozoite surface protein-2 (msp-2). Exp Parasitol [internet]. 2007; 115(1):32-40.
[Cité 13 oct 2019];

Cramer JP, Mockenhaupt FP, Möhl I, Dittrich S, Dietz E, Otchwemah RN, et al. Gene of Plasmodium falciparum and severe malaria : Significant association of the c-segment with fatal outcome in ghanaian children. 2004;175:1-6.

Tiono Ab, Ouédraogo A, Diarra A, Coulibaly S, Soulama I, Konaté AT, et al. Lessons learned from the use of hrp-2 based rapid diagnostic test in community-wide screening and treatment of asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium falciparum in Burkina Faso. 2014;1-9.

Tiono Ab, Guelbeogo MW, Sagnon Nf, Nébié I, Sirima SB, Mukhopadhyay A, et al. Dynamics of malaria transmission and susceptibility to clinical malaria episodes following treatment of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic carriers: Results of a cluster-randomized study of community-wide screening and treatment, and a parallel entomology. Bmc Infect Dis. 2013;13(1).

Modiano D, Luoni G, Sirima BS, Verra F, Konate A, Rastrelli E, et al. Haemoglobin C protects against clinical Plasmodium falciparum malaria. 2001;414:305-8.

Bouyou-Akotet MK, M’bondoukwé NP, Mawili-Mboumba DP. Genetic polymorphism of merozoite surface protein-1 in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from patients with mild to severe malaria in Libreville, Gabon. Parasite. 2015;22.

Yavo W, Konaté A, Mawili-Mboumba DP, Kassi FK, Mbuyi MLT, Angora EK, et al. Genetic polymorphism of msp 1 and msp 2 in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Côte d ’ ivoire versus gabon; 2016.

Sorontou Y, Pakpahan A. Genetic diversity in msp-1 gene of Plasmodium falciparum and its association with malaria severity, parasite density and host factors of asymptomatic and symptomatic patients in papua, indonesia. Int J Med Sci Public Heal. 2015;4(11):1584.

Razak MRMA, Sastu UR, Norahmad NA, Abdu-Karim A, Muhammad A, Muniandy PK, et al. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum populations in malaria declining areas of sabah, East Malaysia. Plos One. 2016;11(3):1-22.

Gosi P, lanteri CA, Tyner SD, SE Y, Lon C, Spring M, et al. Evaluation of parasite subpopulations and genetic diversity of the msp1, msp2 and glurp genes during and following artesunate monotherapy treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in western cambodia. Malar J [internet]. 2013;12(1):1.

Funwei RI, Thomas BN, Falade CO, Ojurongbe O. Extensive diversity in the allelic frequency of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface proteins and glutamate-rich protein in rural and urban settings of southwestern nigeria. Malar J [internet]. 2018;17(1).

Felger I, Tavul L, Kabintik S, Marshall V, Genton B, Alpers M, et al. Plasmodium falciparum: Extensive polymorphism in merozoite surface antigen 2 alleles in an area with endemic malaria in papua new guinea. Exp Parasitol [Internet]. 1994; 79(2):106-16.
[Cité 1 oct 2019]

Conway DJ, Mcbride JS. Genetic evidence for the importance of interrupted feeding by mosquitoes in the transmission of malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg [internet]. 1991;85(4):454-6.
[Cité 1 oct 2019].

Zwetyenga J, Rogier C, Tall A, Fontenille D, Snounou G, Trape JF, et al. No influence of age on infection complexity and allelic distribution in Plasmodium falciparum infections in ndiop, a senegalese village with seasonal, mesoendemic malaria. AM J Trop Med Hyg. 1998;59(5):726-35.

Somé Af, Bazié T, Zongo I, Yerbanga RS, Nikiéma F, Neya C, et al. Plasmodium falciparum msp1 and msp2 genetic diversity and allele frequencies in parasites isolated from symptomatic malaria patients in bobo-dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Parasites and Vectors. 2018;11(1):1-8.

Färnert A, Ursing J, Tolfvenstam T, Rono J, Karlsson L, Sparrelid E, et al. Artemether-lumefantrine treatment failure despite adequate lumefantrine day 7 concentration in a traveller with Plasmodium falciparum malaria after returning from Tanzania. Malar J [internet]. 2012;11(1):1.

Bharti PK, Chand SK, Singh MP, Mishra S, Shukla MM, Singh R. Emergence of a new focus of Plasmodium malariae in forest villages of District Balaghat, Central India: Implications for the diagnosis of malaria and its control. 2013;18(1):12-7.

Patel DK, Mashon RS, Purohit P, Meher S, Dehury S, Marndi C, et al. Influence of sickle cell gene on the allelic diversity at the msp-1 locus of Plasmodium falciparum in adult patients with severe malaria. Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis. 2015;7(1):1-8.

Sombié S, Badoum ES, Sermé SS, Diawara A, Diarra A, Coulibaly SA, et al. The impact of human genetic factors (g6pd and type of hemoglobin) on the course of uncomplicated malaria infection in children aged from 2 to 10 years living in the Banfora Health District in Burkina Faso. 2019;36:1-12.

Soulama I, Sermé SS, Bougouma EC, Diarra A, Tiono AB, Ouedraogo A, et al. Clinical variation of Plasmodium falciparum eba-175, ama-1, and msp-3 genotypes in young children living in a seasonally high malaria transmission setting in Burkina Faso. J Parasitol Res; 2015.

Färnert A, Rooth I, Svensson Å, Snounou G, Björkman A. Complexity of Plasmodium falciparum infections is consistent over time and protects against clinical disease in Tanzanian children. J Infect Dis. 1999;179(4):989-95.

Owusu-agyei S, Smith T, Beck HP, Amenga-etego l, Felger I. Molecular epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum infections among asymptomatic inhabitants of a holoendemic malarious area in Northern Ghana. Trop Med Int Heal. 2002; 7(5):421-8.

Smith T, Felger I, Tanner M, Beck HP. The epidemiology of multiple Plasmodium falciparum infections 11. Premunition in Plasmodium falciparum infection: Insights from the epidemiology of multiple infections. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1999;93(suppl. 1):59-64.

Konaté Lassana, Joanna Zwetyengal, Christophe Rogierz, Emmanuel Bischoffl DF, Adama TALP, Andre Spiegelz J-FT OM-P. The epidemiology of multiple Plasmodium falciparum infections and of infection complexity in two neighbouring senegalese villages with different trans-mission conditions. Trans andhygiene. 1999;33(0).